What is a GIC? A beginner’s guide to guaranteed investment certificates

Everything you need to know about GICs, including how they work, how safe they are, GIC rates, their pros and cons and if they should be in your portfolio.

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With interest rates close to historic lows, many investors are seeking out alternatives to government bonds and savings accounts, which are struggling to deliver attractive yields. One such alternative is a guaranteed investment certificate, or GIC. This is popular among some investors who want a safe option that will deliver somewhat higher interest returns. 

So, what is a GIC? 

A guaranteed investment certificate is a savings product that is effectively a loan you make to a financial institution. You receive a guaranteed rate of interest, but your money is typically locked into the account for a pre-determined amount of time. This can be anywhere from 30 days to 10 years. The longer the GIC’s term, the higher the interest you’ll receive.

Interest can be paid out either monthly, quarterly, annually or at maturity. At the end of the term, you are paid back your full principal, plus any interest still owing. If you withdraw your money early, you might have to pay a penalty. For this reason, you wouldn’t want to use a GIC for any money you might need to access in a hurry.

Are GICs safe?

GICs are very safe investments (this is a key reason why they’re popular). Your principal (and often the interest) are usually guaranteed, typically by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, though the insurer can change depending on who you take the investment with and which province you live in.

Amounts up to between $100,000 and $250,000 are covered, depending on your home province. Even if your financial institution were to go bust, your money would be safe. 

Are GICs liquid?

On the whole, most GICs are not considered to be liquid assets because, by their nature, they lock your money in for a specified period of time. There are several different types of GICs, however, and some are more liquid than others:

Non-redeemable GICs

These products only work if you are OK with locking up your money for set periods of time. If you withdraw your money early from these types of GICs, you will be charged a penalty. As a result, interest rates are higher than redeemable GICs. Interest can be fixed or variable (variable rates fluctuate with the underlying interest rate benchmark).

Redeemable GICs (or cashable GICs)

These are a good bet if you think you might need to withdraw your money before the end of the term, as they don’t charge a penalty. However, their rates are not as high as non-redeemable GICs.

Market- or equity-linked GICs

These are linked to the performance of an underlying stock market index, so the return is not guaranteed, and you only know what it will be when it matures. This can be a good way to take advantage of the growth potential of the stock market without as much of the risk: you might make no interest if the stock market drops in value, but you will always keep your principal. 


GICs versus mutual funds and GICs versus bonds 

Many investors wonder how GICs compare to mutual funds and bonds. When it comes to mutual funds, GICs have a very different purpose. Mutual funds invest in equities and bonds, among others, some of which can be riskier assets from the point of view of losing value. They also have the potential to deliver much higher returns than GICs. GICs are designed for investors looking for a very safe investment with returns delivered over a defined time period.

When comparing GICs to bonds, both investments are relatively safe but typically provide considerably lower returns than equities usually deliver. Some GICs currently deliver higher interest rates than many North American bonds, so they may be a better option for some investors. 


Pros and cons of guaranteed investment certificates

What is a GIC’s strength? What is a GIC’s drawback? Let’s take a look:

GIC advantages:

  • Your principal is typically guaranteed, up to the insured limits, so you normally won’t lose it (and interest is usually guaranteed as well)
  • Being unable to access your money without a penalty can help prevent you from dipping into your savings
  • There is a wide variety of GIC rates and terms to choose from
  • They can be held within registered accounts (such as RRSPs and TFSAs)
  • Interest can be considerably higher than with regular savings accounts
  • GIC rates can also be higher than government-issued bonds
  • It is a very safe investment
  • There are usually no charges to open a GIC
  • Minimum investments are often as low as $500


GIC disadvantages:

  • Interest rates can be fairly low, depending on the market, so if you’re investing at a time when rates have dipped, try not to lock your money in for too long
  • The best GIC rates in Canada require your money to be locked in for several years at a time
  • If you withdraw your money early, you will probably pay a penalty
  • Locking in your money for a long period at a low rate during a time of high inflation could effectively mean your money loses value


Are GICs a good investment?

This will really depend on your individual situation and financial goals. Your IG Wealth Management Consultant can discuss if guaranteed investment certificates are a good option for your portfolio, go over the best GIC rates in Canada and suggest which ones might be the best fit for you. If you don’t have an IG Consultant, you can find one here

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